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Managing Secrets in .NET Console Apps

How to use dotnet user-secrets to store and retrieve secrets and set environment variables in .NET applications.

Sometimes your code needs to work with secrets that you don’t want to risk accidentally leaking on the internet. There are many strategies for solving this problem, and here I share my preferred approach. I see a lot of articles about how to manage user secrets in ASP.NET and other web applications, but not many focusing on console or desktop applications.

User Secrets in C# Applications

1. Create a New .NET App

dotnet new console

2. Set the Secrets ID




3. Add Secrets Locally

dotnet user-secrets set username me@example.com
dotnet user-secrets set password mySecretPass123

4. Install the UserSecrets Package

dotnet add package Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.UserSecrets

💡 CAREFUL: If you accidentally install Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration instead of Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.UserSecrets you won’t have access to AddUserSecrets()

5. Access Secrets in Code

using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;
var config = new ConfigurationBuilder().AddUserSecrets<Program>().Build();
string username = config["username"];
string password = config["password"];

NOTE: If a key does not exist its value will be null

Environment Variables

Cloud platforms (GitHub Actions, Azure, etc.) often use environment variables to manage secrets. Using local user secrets to populate environment variables is a useful way to locally develop applications that will run in the cloud.

This example shows how to populate environment variables from user secrets:

using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;

class Program
    static void Main()
        string username = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("username");
        string password = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("password");

    static void SetEnvironmentVariablesFromUserSecrets()
        var config = new ConfigurationBuilder().AddUserSecrets<Program>().Build();
        foreach (var child in config.GetChildren())
            Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(child.Key, child.Value);

GitHub Actions

GitHub Actions makes it easy to load repository secrets into environment variables. See GitHub / Encrypted secrets for more information about how to add secrets to your repository.

This example snippet of a GitHub action loads two GitHub repository secrets (USERNAME and PASSWORD) as environment variables (username and password) that can be read by my unit tests using Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable() as shown above.

      - name: 🧪 Run Tests
          username: ${{ secrets.USERNAME }}
          password: ${{ secrets.PASSWORD }}
        run: dotnet test ./src


Using these strategies I am able to write code that seamlessly accesses secrets locally on my dev machine and from environment variables when running in the cloud. Since this strategy does not store secrets inside my project folder, the chance of accidentally committing a .env or other secrets file to source control approaches zero.