The personal website of Scott W Harden
May 22nd, 2010

Debut of the AJ4VD QRSS Gator

I re-wrote the code from the previous entry to do several things. Once of which was to make a gator rather than a fish. It's more appropriate since I'm planning on housing the transmitter at the University of Florida. To do it, I drew a gator in paint and wrote a python script to convert the image into a series of points. I'll post it later. One thing to note was that size was a SERIOUS issue. I only have two thousand bytes of code, and every point of that gator was a byte, so it was a memory hog. I helped it dramatically by using repeating segments wherever possible, and some creative math to help out the best I could (i.e., the spines on the back) Here's what it looks like, and the code below it...

#include <avr/io.h>
#include <util/delay.h>

// front top LED - PA0
// inside top LED - PA1
// inside bot LED - PA2
// front bot LED - PA3

unsigned long int t_unit; // units of time
const int tDit = 100;     //units for a dit
const int tDah = 255;     //units for a dah
char fsk;                 // degree of frequency shift to use for CW
char fsk2;                // degree of frequency shift to use for HELL

char light = 0; // which lights are on/off

void delay()
{
    _delay_loop_2(t_unit);
}

void blink()
{
    return;
    if (light == 0)
    {
        PORTA |= (1 << PA0);  //on
        PORTA |= (1 << PA1);  //on
        PORTA &= ~(1 << PA2); //off
        PORTA &= ~(1 << PA3); //off
        light = 1;
    }
    else
    {
        PORTA |= (1 << PA2);  //on
        PORTA |= (1 << PA3);  //on
        PORTA &= ~(1 << PA0); //off
        PORTA &= ~(1 << PA1); //off
        light = 0;
    }
}

void tick(unsigned long ticks)
{
    while (ticks > 0)
    {
        delay();
        delay();
        ticks--;
    }
}

void pwm_init()
{
    //Output on PA6, OC1A pin (ATTiny44a)
    OCR1A = 0x00;  //enter the pulse width. We will use 0x00 for now, which is 0 power.
    TCCR1A = 0x81; //8-bit, non inverted PWM
    TCCR1B = 1;    //start PWM
}

void set(int freq, int dly)
{
    OCR1A = freq;
    tick(dly);
}

void fish()
{
    char mult = 3;

    char f2[] = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 4, 3, 7, 4, 7, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 4, 9, 5, 9, 6, 9, 6, 9, 6, 9, 8, 8, 7, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5};

    for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(f2); i++)
    {
        OCR1A = f2[i] * mult;
        blink();
        tick(20);
        OCR1A = 1 * mult;
        blink();
        tick(20);
    }

    char f3[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2};

    char offset = 0;
    while (offset < 9)
    {
        for (char j = 0; j < 3; j++)
        {
            for (char i = 0; i < sizeof(f3); i++)
            {
                char val = (f3[i] + 5 - offset) * mult;
                if (val < mult || val > 10 * mult)
                {
                    val = mult;
                }
                OCR1A = val;
                blink();
                tick(20);
                OCR1A = 1 * mult;
                blink();
                tick(20);
            }
        }
        offset++;
    }
}

void id()
{
    char f[] = {0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1, 1, 0, 0};
    char i = 0;
    while (i < sizeof(f))
    {
        blink();
        if (f[i] == 0)
        {
            OCR1A = 0;
            tick(tDah);
        }
        if (f[i] == 1)
        {
            OCR1A = fsk;
            tick(tDit);
        }
        if (f[i] == 2)
        {
            OCR1A = fsk;
            tick(tDah);
        }
        blink();
        OCR1A = 0;
        tick(tDit);
        i++;
    }
}

void slope()
{
    char i = 0;
    while (i < 25)
    {
        OCR1A = 255 - i;
        i++;
    }
    while (i > 0)
    {
        i--;
        OCR1A = 255 - i;
    }
}

int main(void)
{
    DDRA = 255;
    blink();
    pwm_init();
    t_unit = 1000;
    fsk = 10;
    id(); // set to fast and ID once
          //fsk=50;//t_unit = 65536; // set to slow for QRSS
    t_unit = 60000;

    while (1)
    {
        ;
        fish();
        id();
    }

    return 1;
}
Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: Debut of the AJ4VD QRSS Gator
date: 2010-05-22 18:41:54
tags: qrss, old
---

# Debut of the AJ4VD QRSS Gator

__I re-wrote the code__ from the previous entry to do several things. Once of which was to make a gator rather than a fish. It's more appropriate since I'm planning on housing the transmitter at the University of Florida. To do it, I drew a gator in paint and wrote a python script to convert the image into a series of points. I'll post it later. One thing to note was that size was a SERIOUS issue. I only have two thousand bytes of code, and every point of that gator was a byte, so it was a memory hog. I helped it dramatically by using repeating segments wherever possible, and some creative math to help out the best I could (i.e., the spines on the back) Here's what it looks like, and the code below it...

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](aj4vd_gator_thumb.jpg)](aj4vd_gator.png)

</div>

```c
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <util/delay.h>

// front top LED - PA0
// inside top LED - PA1
// inside bot LED - PA2
// front bot LED - PA3

unsigned long int t_unit; // units of time
const int tDit = 100;     //units for a dit
const int tDah = 255;     //units for a dah
char fsk;                 // degree of frequency shift to use for CW
char fsk2;                // degree of frequency shift to use for HELL

char light = 0; // which lights are on/off

void delay()
{
    _delay_loop_2(t_unit);
}

void blink()
{
    return;
    if (light == 0)
    {
        PORTA |= (1 << PA0);  //on
        PORTA |= (1 << PA1);  //on
        PORTA &= ~(1 << PA2); //off
        PORTA &= ~(1 << PA3); //off
        light = 1;
    }
    else
    {
        PORTA |= (1 << PA2);  //on
        PORTA |= (1 << PA3);  //on
        PORTA &= ~(1 << PA0); //off
        PORTA &= ~(1 << PA1); //off
        light = 0;
    }
}

void tick(unsigned long ticks)
{
    while (ticks > 0)
    {
        delay();
        delay();
        ticks--;
    }
}

void pwm_init()
{
    //Output on PA6, OC1A pin (ATTiny44a)
    OCR1A = 0x00;  //enter the pulse width. We will use 0x00 for now, which is 0 power.
    TCCR1A = 0x81; //8-bit, non inverted PWM
    TCCR1B = 1;    //start PWM
}

void set(int freq, int dly)
{
    OCR1A = freq;
    tick(dly);
}

void fish()
{
    char mult = 3;

    char f2[] = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 4, 3, 7, 4, 7, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 4, 9, 5, 9, 6, 9, 6, 9, 6, 9, 8, 8, 7, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5};

    for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(f2); i++)
    {
        OCR1A = f2[i] * mult;
        blink();
        tick(20);
        OCR1A = 1 * mult;
        blink();
        tick(20);
    }

    char f3[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2};

    char offset = 0;
    while (offset < 9)
    {
        for (char j = 0; j < 3; j++)
        {
            for (char i = 0; i < sizeof(f3); i++)
            {
                char val = (f3[i] + 5 - offset) * mult;
                if (val < mult || val > 10 * mult)
                {
                    val = mult;
                }
                OCR1A = val;
                blink();
                tick(20);
                OCR1A = 1 * mult;
                blink();
                tick(20);
            }
        }
        offset++;
    }
}

void id()
{
    char f[] = {0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1, 1, 0, 0};
    char i = 0;
    while (i < sizeof(f))
    {
        blink();
        if (f[i] == 0)
        {
            OCR1A = 0;
            tick(tDah);
        }
        if (f[i] == 1)
        {
            OCR1A = fsk;
            tick(tDit);
        }
        if (f[i] == 2)
        {
            OCR1A = fsk;
            tick(tDah);
        }
        blink();
        OCR1A = 0;
        tick(tDit);
        i++;
    }
}

void slope()
{
    char i = 0;
    while (i < 25)
    {
        OCR1A = 255 - i;
        i++;
    }
    while (i > 0)
    {
        i--;
        OCR1A = 255 - i;
    }
}

int main(void)
{
    DDRA = 255;
    blink();
    pwm_init();
    t_unit = 1000;
    fsk = 10;
    id(); // set to fast and ID once
          //fsk=50;//t_unit = 65536; // set to slow for QRSS
    t_unit = 60000;

    while (1)
    {
        ;
        fish();
        id();
    }

    return 1;
}
```

May 19th, 2010

Debut of the AJ4VD QRSS Fish

Finally! After a few years tumbling around in my head, a few months of reading-up on the subject, a few weeks of coding, a few days of bread-boarding, a few hours of building, a few minutes of soldering, and a few seconds of testing I've finally done it - I've created my first QRSS transmitter! I'll describe it in more detail once I finalize the design, but for now an awesome working model. It's all digital, consisting of 2 ICs (an ATTiny44a for the PWM-controlled frequency modulation, and an octal buffer for the pre-amplifier) followed by a simple pi low-pass filter.

My desk is a little messy. I'm hard at work! Actually, I'm thinking of building another desk. I love the glass because I don't have to worry (as much) about fires. That sounds scary, I know.

This is the transmitter. The box is mostly empty space, but it consists of the circuit, an antenna connection, a variable capacitor for center frequency tuning, and a potentiometer for setting the degree of frequency shift modulation.

Yeah, that's a fishy. Specifically a goldfish (the cracker). It's made with a single tone, shifting rapidly (0.5 sec) between tones. So cool. Anyway, I'm outta here for now - getting back to the code! I think I'll try to make a gator next...

Here's the code that makes the fish. It sends my ID quickly, some fish, then my ID in QRSS speed using PWM.

#include <avr/io.h>
#include <util/delay.h>

const int tDit = 270 / 3;
const int tDah = 270;

char fsk;
unsigned long int t_unit;

void delay()
{
    _delay_loop_2(t_unit);
}

void blink()
{
    PORTA ^= (1 << 0);
    PORTA ^= (1 << 1);
    PORTA ^= (1 << 2);
    PORTA ^= (1 << 3);
}

void tick(unsigned long ticks)
{
    while (ticks > 0)
    {
        delay();
        delay();
        ticks--;
    }
}

void pwm_init()
{
    //Output on PA6, OC1A pin (ATTiny44a)
    OCR1A = 0x00;  //enter the pulse width. We will use 0x00 for now, which is 0 power.
    TCCR1A = 0x81; //8-bit, non inverted PWM
    TCCR1B = 1;    //start PWM
}

void set(int freq, int dly)
{
    OCR1A = freq;
    tick(dly);
}

void fish()
{
    char f[] = {0, 0, 0, 4, 5, 3, 6, 2, 7, 1, 5, 6, 8, 1, 8, 1, 8, 1, 8, 1, 8, 2, 7, 3, 6, 2, 7, 1, 8, 1, 8, 4, 5, 2, 3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0};
    char i = 0;
    while (i < sizeof(f))
    {
        i++;
        OCR1A = 255 - f[i] * 15;
        blink();
        tick(20);
    }
}

void id()
{
    char f[] = {0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1, 1, 0, 0};
    char i = 0;
    while (i < sizeof(f))
    {
        blink();
        if (f[i] == 0)
        {
            OCR1A = 255;
            tick(tDah);
        }
        if (f[i] == 1)
        {
            OCR1A = 255 - fsk;
            tick(tDit);
        }
        if (f[i] == 2)
        {
            OCR1A = 255 - fsk;
            tick(tDah);
        }
        blink();
        OCR1A = 255;
        tick(tDit);
        i++;
    }
}

void slope()
{
    char i = 0;
    while (i < 25)
    {
        OCR1A = 255 - i;
        i++;
    }
    while (i > 0)
    {
        i--;
        OCR1A = 255 - i;
    }
}

int main(void)
{
    DDRA = 255;
    PORTA ^= (1 << 0);
    PORTA ^= (1 << 1);
    pwm_init();

    t_unit = 2300;
    fsk = 50;
    id(); // set to fast and ID once

    fsk = 50;
    t_unit = 65536; // set to slow for QRSS

    while (1)
    {
        id();
        for (char i = 0; i < 3; i++)
        {
            fish();
        }
    }

    return 1;
}
Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: Debut of the AJ4VD QRSS Fish
date: 2010-05-19 19:58:16
tags: python, qrss, old
---

# Debut of the AJ4VD QRSS Fish

__Finally!__ After a few years tumbling around in my head, a few months of reading-up on the subject, a few weeks of coding, a few days of bread-boarding, a few hours of building, a few minutes of soldering, and a few seconds of testing I've finally done it - I've created my first QRSS transmitter! I'll describe it in more detail once I finalize the design, but for now an awesome working model. It's all digital, consisting of 2 ICs (an ATTiny44a for the PWM-controlled frequency modulation, and an octal buffer for the pre-amplifier) followed by a simple pi low-pass filter.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](qrss-desk_thumb.jpg)](qrss-desk.jpg)

</div>

__My desk is a little messy.__ I'm hard at work! Actually, I'm thinking of building another desk. I love the glass because I don't have to worry (as much) about fires. That sounds scary, I know.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](qrss-transmitter_thumb.jpg)](qrss-transmitter.jpg)

</div>

__This is the transmitter.__ The box is mostly empty space, but it consists of the circuit, an antenna connection, a variable capacitor for center frequency tuning, and a potentiometer for setting the degree of frequency shift modulation.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](qrss-fish_thumb.jpg)](qrss-fish.png)

</div>

__Yeah, that's a fishy. __Specifically a goldfish (the cracker). It's made with a single tone, shifting rapidly (0.5 sec) between tones. So cool. Anyway, I'm outta here for now - getting back to the code! I think I'll try to make a gator next...

__Here's the code that makes the fish.__ It sends my ID quickly, some fish, then my ID in QRSS speed using PWM.

```c
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <util/delay.h>

const int tDit = 270 / 3;
const int tDah = 270;

char fsk;
unsigned long int t_unit;

void delay()
{
    _delay_loop_2(t_unit);
}

void blink()
{
    PORTA ^= (1 << 0);
    PORTA ^= (1 << 1);
    PORTA ^= (1 << 2);
    PORTA ^= (1 << 3);
}

void tick(unsigned long ticks)
{
    while (ticks > 0)
    {
        delay();
        delay();
        ticks--;
    }
}

void pwm_init()
{
    //Output on PA6, OC1A pin (ATTiny44a)
    OCR1A = 0x00;  //enter the pulse width. We will use 0x00 for now, which is 0 power.
    TCCR1A = 0x81; //8-bit, non inverted PWM
    TCCR1B = 1;    //start PWM
}

void set(int freq, int dly)
{
    OCR1A = freq;
    tick(dly);
}

void fish()
{
    char f[] = {0, 0, 0, 4, 5, 3, 6, 2, 7, 1, 5, 6, 8, 1, 8, 1, 8, 1, 8, 1, 8, 2, 7, 3, 6, 2, 7, 1, 8, 1, 8, 4, 5, 2, 3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0};
    char i = 0;
    while (i < sizeof(f))
    {
        i++;
        OCR1A = 255 - f[i] * 15;
        blink();
        tick(20);
    }
}

void id()
{
    char f[] = {0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1, 1, 0, 0};
    char i = 0;
    while (i < sizeof(f))
    {
        blink();
        if (f[i] == 0)
        {
            OCR1A = 255;
            tick(tDah);
        }
        if (f[i] == 1)
        {
            OCR1A = 255 - fsk;
            tick(tDit);
        }
        if (f[i] == 2)
        {
            OCR1A = 255 - fsk;
            tick(tDah);
        }
        blink();
        OCR1A = 255;
        tick(tDit);
        i++;
    }
}

void slope()
{
    char i = 0;
    while (i < 25)
    {
        OCR1A = 255 - i;
        i++;
    }
    while (i > 0)
    {
        i--;
        OCR1A = 255 - i;
    }
}

int main(void)
{
    DDRA = 255;
    PORTA ^= (1 << 0);
    PORTA ^= (1 << 1);
    pwm_init();

    t_unit = 2300;
    fsk = 50;
    id(); // set to fast and ID once

    fsk = 50;
    t_unit = 65536; // set to slow for QRSS

    while (1)
    {
        id();
        for (char i = 0; i < 3; i++)
        {
            fish();
        }
    }

    return 1;
}
```

May 17th, 2010

Minimal QRSS Transmitter

Success! Amid a bunch of academic exams, psycho-motor tests, and other crazy shenanigans my dental school is putting me through, I managed to do something truly productive! I built a simple QRSS transmitter with an ATTiny44A microcontroller clocked by a 7.04 MHz crystal which generates FSK signals and modulates its own frequency by applying potential to a reverse-biased diode at the base of the crystal, the output (CKOUT) of which is amplified by an octal buffer and sent out through an antenna. As it is, no lowpass filtering is implemented, so noisy harmonics are expected. However for ~2$ of parts this is an effective QRSS transmitter!

I was able to detect these signals VERY strongly at a station ~10 miles from my house. I haven't yet dropped in a 10.140 MHz crystal and tried to get this thing to transmit in the QRSS band, but when I do I hope to get reports from all over the world! This is what it looks like:

The cool thing about this transmitter (aside from the fact that it's so cheap to build) is that it will work with almost any crystal (I think below 20 MHz-ish) - just drop it in the slot and go!

Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: Minimal QRSS Transmitter
date: 2010-05-17 11:13:52
tags: circuit, qrss, old
---

# Minimal QRSS Transmitter

__Success!__ Amid a bunch of academic exams, psycho-motor tests, and other crazy shenanigans my dental school is putting me through, I managed to do something truly productive! I built a simple QRSS transmitter with an ATTiny44A microcontroller clocked by a 7.04 MHz crystal which generates FSK signals and modulates its own frequency by applying potential to a reverse-biased diode at the base of the crystal, the output (CKOUT) of which is amplified by an octal buffer and sent out through an antenna. As it is, no lowpass filtering is implemented, so noisy harmonics are expected. However for ~2$ of parts this is an effective QRSS transmitter!

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](simple_qrss_transmitter_thumb.jpg)](simple_qrss_transmitter.jpg)

</div>

__I was able to detect__ these signals VERY strongly at a station ~10 miles from my house. I haven't yet dropped in a 10.140 MHz crystal and tried to get this thing to transmit in the QRSS band, but when I do I hope to get reports from all over the world! This is what it looks like:

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](aj4vd_thumb.jpg)](aj4vd.jpg)

</div>

__The cool thing__ about this transmitter (aside from the fact that it's so cheap to build) is that it will work with almost any crystal (I think below 20 MHz-ish) - just drop it in the slot and go!

May 10th, 2010

Generate LUTs with Python

I wrote a script to generate and display LUTs with Python. There has been a lot of heated discussion in the QRSS Knights mailing list as to the use of color maps when representing QRSS data. I'll make a separate post (perhaps later?) documenting why it's so critical to use particular mathematically-generated color maps rather than empirical "looks good to me" color selections. Anyway, this is what I came up with:

For my QRSS needs, I desire a colormap which is aesthetically pleasing but can also be quickly reverted to its original (gray-scale) data. I accomplished this by choosing a channel (green in this case) and applying its intensity linearly with respect to the value it represents. Thus, any "final" image can be imported into an editor, split by RGB, and the green channel represents the original data. This allows adjustment of contrast/brightness and even the reassignment of a different colormap, all without losing any data!

ORIGINAL DATA: (that's the "flying W" and the FSK signal below it is WA5DJJ)

Note that it looks nice, shows weak signals, doesn't get blown-out by strong signals, and it fully includes the noise floor (utilizing all available data).

This is the Python script I wrote to generate the downloadable LUTs, graphs, and scale bars / keys / legends which are not posted. It requires python, matplotlib, and PIL.

import math
import pylab
from PIL import Image

####################### GENERATE RGB VALUES #######################

r,g,b=[],[],[]
name="Blin_Glin_Rlin"
for i in range(256):
    if i>128: #LOW HALF
        j=128
        k=i
    else: #HIGH HALF
        k=128
        j=i
    #b.append((math.sin(3.1415926535*j/128.0/2))*256)
    #r.append((1+math.sin(3.1415926535*(k-128*2)/128.0/2))*256)
    r.append(k*2-255)
    g.append(i)
    b.append(j*2-1)

    if r[-1]<0:r[-1]=0
    if g[-1]<0:g[-1]=0
    if b[-1]<0:b[-1]=0

    if r[-1]>255:b[-1]=255
    if g[-1]>255:g[-1]=255
    if b[-1]>255:b[-1]=255

####################### SAVE LUT FILE #######################
im = Image.new("RGB",(256*2,10*4))
pix = im.load()
for x in range(256):
    for y in range(10):
        pix[x,y] = (r[x],g[x],b[x])
        pix[x,y+10] = (r[x],0,0)
        pix[x,y+20] = (0,g[x],0)
        pix[x,y+30] = (0,0,b[x])
        a=(g[x]+g[x]+g[x])/3
        pix[256+x,y] = (a,a,a)
        pix[256+x,y+10] = (r[x],r[x],r[x])
        pix[256+x,y+20] = (g[x],g[x],g[x])
        pix[256+x,y+30] = (b[x],b[x],b[x])
#im=im.resize((256/2,40),Image.ANTIALIAS)
im.save(name+"_scale.png")

####################### PLOT IT #######################
pylab.figure(figsize=(8,4))
pylab.grid(alpha=.3)
pylab.title(name)
pylab.xlabel("Data Value")
pylab.ylabel("Color Intensity")
pylab.plot(g,'g-')
pylab.plot(r,'r-')
pylab.plot(b,'b-')
pylab.axis([-10,266,-10,266])
pylab.subplots_adjust(top=0.90, bottom=0.14, left=0.1, right=0.97)
pylab.savefig(name+"_graph.png",dpi=60)
#pylab.show()

####################### SAVE LUT FILE #######################
f=open(name+".lut",'w')
out="IndextRedtGreentBluen"
for i in range(256):
    out+=("t%dt%dt%dt%dn"%(i,r[i],g[i],b[i]))
f.write(out)
f.close()
Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: Generate LUTs with Python
date: 2010-05-10 22:31:46
tags: python, old
---

# Generate LUTs with Python

__I wrote a script to generate and display LUTs with Python.__ There has been a lot of heated discussion in the [QRSS Knights mailing list](http://cnts.be/mailman/listinfo/knightsqrss_cnts.be) as to the use of color maps when representing QRSS data. I'll make a separate post (perhaps later?) documenting why it's so critical to use particular mathematically-generated color maps rather than empirical "looks good to me" color selections. Anyway, this is what I came up with:

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](Blin_Glin_Rlin_scale_thumb.jpg)](Blin_Glin_Rlin_scale.png)

</div>

__For my QRSS needs,__ I desire a colormap which is aesthetically pleasing but can also be quickly reverted to its original (gray-scale) data. I accomplished this by choosing a channel (green in this case) and applying its intensity linearly with respect to the value it represents. Thus, any "final" image can be imported into an editor, split by RGB, and the green channel represents the original data. This allows adjustment of contrast/brightness and even the reassignment of a different colormap, all without losing any data!

<div class="text-center img-border">

![](Blin_Glin_Rlin.jpg-green.jpg)

</div>

__ORIGINAL DATA:__
(that's the "flying W" and the FSK signal below it is WA5DJJ)

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](Blin_Glin_Rlin_graph_thumb.jpg)](Blin_Glin_Rlin_graph.png)
![](Blin_Glin_Rlin.jpg)

</div>

Note that it looks nice, shows weak signals, doesn't get blown-out by strong signals, and it fully includes the noise floor (utilizing all available data).

<div class="text-center img-border">

![](Blin_Glin_Rlin.jpg-blue.jpg)
![](Blin_Glin_Rlin.jpg-red.jpg)
![](Blin_Glin_Rlin.jpg-green.jpg)
[![](Bsin_Glin_Rsin_graph_thumb.jpg)](Bsin_Glin_Rsin_graph.png)
![](Bsin_Glin_Rsin.jpg)

</div>

__This is the Python script__ I wrote to generate the downloadable LUTs, graphs, and scale bars / keys / legends which are not posted. It requires python, matplotlib, and PIL.

```python
import math
import pylab
from PIL import Image

####################### GENERATE RGB VALUES #######################

r,g,b=[],[],[]
name="Blin_Glin_Rlin"
for i in range(256):
    if i>128: #LOW HALF
        j=128
        k=i
    else: #HIGH HALF
        k=128
        j=i
    #b.append((math.sin(3.1415926535*j/128.0/2))*256)
    #r.append((1+math.sin(3.1415926535*(k-128*2)/128.0/2))*256)
    r.append(k*2-255)
    g.append(i)
    b.append(j*2-1)

    if r[-1]<0:r[-1]=0
    if g[-1]<0:g[-1]=0
    if b[-1]<0:b[-1]=0

    if r[-1]>255:b[-1]=255
    if g[-1]>255:g[-1]=255
    if b[-1]>255:b[-1]=255

####################### SAVE LUT FILE #######################
im = Image.new("RGB",(256*2,10*4))
pix = im.load()
for x in range(256):
    for y in range(10):
        pix[x,y] = (r[x],g[x],b[x])
        pix[x,y+10] = (r[x],0,0)
        pix[x,y+20] = (0,g[x],0)
        pix[x,y+30] = (0,0,b[x])
        a=(g[x]+g[x]+g[x])/3
        pix[256+x,y] = (a,a,a)
        pix[256+x,y+10] = (r[x],r[x],r[x])
        pix[256+x,y+20] = (g[x],g[x],g[x])
        pix[256+x,y+30] = (b[x],b[x],b[x])
#im=im.resize((256/2,40),Image.ANTIALIAS)
im.save(name+"_scale.png")

####################### PLOT IT #######################
pylab.figure(figsize=(8,4))
pylab.grid(alpha=.3)
pylab.title(name)
pylab.xlabel("Data Value")
pylab.ylabel("Color Intensity")
pylab.plot(g,'g-')
pylab.plot(r,'r-')
pylab.plot(b,'b-')
pylab.axis([-10,266,-10,266])
pylab.subplots_adjust(top=0.90, bottom=0.14, left=0.1, right=0.97)
pylab.savefig(name+"_graph.png",dpi=60)
#pylab.show()

####################### SAVE LUT FILE #######################
f=open(name+".lut",'w')
out="IndextRedtGreentBluen"
for i in range(256):
    out+=("t%dt%dt%dt%dn"%(i,r[i],g[i],b[i]))
f.write(out)
f.close()
```

March 9th, 2010

Overseas QRP Transmission

While working on the spectrograph software I'm trying to complete this spring break, I happened to capture a cool signal from Italy. IW4DXW was sending some cool signals that I captured around 10.140 MHz. See how his call sign is written "visually" on the spectrogram? I thought I'd post it because it's an encouraging sign that my software is going in the right direction. Also note the numerous QRSS FSK signals around it! So cool.

I sent an email to the operator and he responded with station information:

Hi Scott! Thank you so much for nice report. This is a short description of my homebrew beacon. The audio source is a normal MP3/WAV player. The file (.WAV) of my hell message (8x8 char) is generated using Chirphel (program by DF6NM) with a fmax~=800Hz and BW=5Hz, and processed with Csound to obtain the phase relation R = L + 90° between channels (hilbert function). A 10.140MHz oven xtal oscillator (adjusted for +880Hz) is a PLL reference used to obtain a x4 frequency. This clock with the 2 audio channels are applied to a “Softrock style” SSB phasing modulator (double H-mixer with 74HC4053 ic).

The LSB output signal (10.140,080MHz @ ~ -3dBm) is amplified by a 2N2222 (driver stage) and a 2SC2314 (linear PA stage ~1W P.E.P. max, but 100 – 200 mW of average power). I’m using a 30m dipole (inverted vee @ about 50 feet). 30 meters looks good today! My signal heard in VK2 too…

Greetings from north Italy, dear Scott!

73
Riccardo, IW4DXW

200mW? That's awesome! Maybe one day I'll build something cool like that! I will now return to the programming project that has been eating-up my spring break.

Here's a screenshot of what I'm doing now I'll keep for the future memory of this break. Yes, I'm on a Windows machine. I'm at the W4DFU radio club station (they have nicer computers than I do!)

Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: Overseas QRP Transmission
date: 2010-03-09 18:01:16
tags: qrss, python, old
---

# Overseas QRP Transmission

__While working on the spectrograph software__ I'm trying to complete this spring break, I happened to capture a cool signal from Italy. IW4DXW was sending some cool signals that I captured around 10.140 MHz. See how his call sign is written "visually" on the spectrogram? I thought I'd post it because it's an encouraging sign that my software is going in the right direction. Also note the numerous QRSS FSK signals around it! So cool.

<div class="text-center img-border img-small">

[![](iw4dxw_thumb.jpg)](iw4dxw.jpg)

</div>

__I sent an email to the operator and he responded __with station information:

<blockquote class="wp-block-quote">

Hi Scott! Thank you so much for nice report. This is a short description of my homebrew beacon. The audio source is a normal MP3/WAV player. The file (.WAV) of my hell message (8x8 char) is generated using Chirphel (program by DF6NM) with a fmax~=800Hz and BW=5Hz, and processed with Csound to obtain the phase relation R = L + 90° between channels (hilbert function). A 10.140MHz oven xtal oscillator (adjusted for +880Hz) is a PLL reference used to obtain a x4 frequency. This clock with the 2 audio channels are applied to a “Softrock style” SSB phasing modulator (double H-mixer with 74HC4053 ic).<br><br>

The LSB output signal (10.140,080MHz @ ~ -3dBm) is amplified by a 2N2222 (driver stage) and a 2SC2314 (linear PA stage ~1W P.E.P. max, but 100 – 200 mW of average power). I’m using a 30m dipole (inverted vee @ about 50 feet). 30 meters looks good today! My signal heard in VK2 too…<br><br>

Greetings from north Italy, dear Scott!<br><br>

73<br>
Riccardo, IW4DXW

</blockquote>

__200mW? That's awesome! __Maybe one day I'll build something cool like that! I will now return to the programming project that has been eating-up my spring break.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](epicProgramming_thumb.jpg)](epicProgramming.jpg)

</div>

Here's a screenshot of what I'm doing now I'll keep for the future memory of this break. Yes, I'm on a Windows machine. I'm at the W4DFU radio club station (they have nicer computers than I do!)

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