The personal website of Scott W Harden
March 9th, 2010

Overseas QRP Transmission

While working on the spectrograph software I'm trying to complete this spring break, I happened to capture a cool signal from Italy. IW4DXW was sending some cool signals that I captured around 10.140 MHz. See how his call sign is written "visually" on the spectrogram? I thought I'd post it because it's an encouraging sign that my software is going in the right direction. Also note the numerous QRSS FSK signals around it! So cool.

I sent an email to the operator and he responded with station information:

Hi Scott! Thank you so much for nice report. This is a short description of my homebrew beacon. The audio source is a normal MP3/WAV player. The file (.WAV) of my hell message (8x8 char) is generated using Chirphel (program by DF6NM) with a fmax~=800Hz and BW=5Hz, and processed with Csound to obtain the phase relation R = L + 90° between channels (hilbert function). A 10.140MHz oven xtal oscillator (adjusted for +880Hz) is a PLL reference used to obtain a x4 frequency. This clock with the 2 audio channels are applied to a “Softrock style” SSB phasing modulator (double H-mixer with 74HC4053 ic).

The LSB output signal (10.140,080MHz @ ~ -3dBm) is amplified by a 2N2222 (driver stage) and a 2SC2314 (linear PA stage ~1W P.E.P. max, but 100 – 200 mW of average power). I’m using a 30m dipole (inverted vee @ about 50 feet). 30 meters looks good today! My signal heard in VK2 too…

Greetings from north Italy, dear Scott!

73
Riccardo, IW4DXW

200mW? That's awesome! Maybe one day I'll build something cool like that! I will now return to the programming project that has been eating-up my spring break.

Here's a screenshot of what I'm doing now I'll keep for the future memory of this break. Yes, I'm on a Windows machine. I'm at the W4DFU radio club station (they have nicer computers than I do!)

Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: Overseas QRP Transmission
date: 2010-03-09 18:01:16
tags: qrss, python, old
---

# Overseas QRP Transmission

__While working on the spectrograph software__ I'm trying to complete this spring break, I happened to capture a cool signal from Italy. IW4DXW was sending some cool signals that I captured around 10.140 MHz. See how his call sign is written "visually" on the spectrogram? I thought I'd post it because it's an encouraging sign that my software is going in the right direction. Also note the numerous QRSS FSK signals around it! So cool.

<div class="text-center img-border img-small">

[![](iw4dxw_thumb.jpg)](iw4dxw.jpg)

</div>

__I sent an email to the operator and he responded __with station information:

<blockquote class="wp-block-quote">

Hi Scott! Thank you so much for nice report. This is a short description of my homebrew beacon. The audio source is a normal MP3/WAV player. The file (.WAV) of my hell message (8x8 char) is generated using Chirphel (program by DF6NM) with a fmax~=800Hz and BW=5Hz, and processed with Csound to obtain the phase relation R = L + 90° between channels (hilbert function). A 10.140MHz oven xtal oscillator (adjusted for +880Hz) is a PLL reference used to obtain a x4 frequency. This clock with the 2 audio channels are applied to a “Softrock style” SSB phasing modulator (double H-mixer with 74HC4053 ic).<br><br>

The LSB output signal (10.140,080MHz @ ~ -3dBm) is amplified by a 2N2222 (driver stage) and a 2SC2314 (linear PA stage ~1W P.E.P. max, but 100 – 200 mW of average power). I’m using a 30m dipole (inverted vee @ about 50 feet). 30 meters looks good today! My signal heard in VK2 too…<br><br>

Greetings from north Italy, dear Scott!<br><br>

73<br>
Riccardo, IW4DXW

</blockquote>

__200mW? That's awesome! __Maybe one day I'll build something cool like that! I will now return to the programming project that has been eating-up my spring break.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](epicProgramming_thumb.jpg)](epicProgramming.jpg)

</div>

Here's a screenshot of what I'm doing now I'll keep for the future memory of this break. Yes, I'm on a Windows machine. I'm at the W4DFU radio club station (they have nicer computers than I do!)

March 6th, 2010

Spring Break Software Project

Wow, I can't believe I took-on such a massive challenge this week! Ironically I've worked harder and learned more in the last 4 days than I have over the last 9 months of dental school. This is an incredible feeling of accomplishment. My program, coded from scratch, polls the sound card continuously and makes extremely large spectrographs. It's not finished, but it's working. I'm impressed!

The image above is the actual-size display of the image below. The image below was actually cropped to less than 3,000 pixels high, whereas the original is over 8,000 pixels high!

Note from Future Scott (ten years later, August 2019):

I remember this day! It was the first time I completed a big software project, and it was a great feeling. It motivated me to continue working on software for years to come. I also got a kick out of this quote from early-dental-student Scott: "I've worked harder and learned more in the last 4 days than I have over the last 9 months of dental school."

Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: Spring Break Software Project
date: 2010-03-06 23:49:08
tags: qrss
---

# Spring Break Software Project

__Wow, I can't believe I took-on such a massive challenge this week!__ Ironically I've worked harder and learned more in the last 4 days than I have over the last 9 months of dental school. This is an incredible feeling of accomplishment. My program, coded from scratch, polls the sound card continuously and makes extremely large spectrographs. It's not finished, but it's working. I'm impressed!

<div class="text-center img-border img-small">

[![](gotit_thumb.jpg)](gotit.jpg)

</div>

__The image above is the actual-size display of the image below.__ The image below was actually cropped to less than 3,000 pixels high, whereas the original is over 8,000 pixels high!

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](qrss_big_thumb.jpg)](qrss_big.jpg)

</div>

<blockquote class="wp-block-quote">

**Note from Future Scott (ten years later, August 2019):**

I remember this day! It was the first time I completed a big software project, and it was a great feeling. It motivated me to continue working on software for years to come. I also got a kick out of this quote from early-dental-student Scott: _"I've worked harder and learned more in the last 4 days than I have over the last 9 months of dental school."_

</blockquote>

January 1st, 2010

QRSS and Life in Dental School

QRSS uses extremely simple radio transmitters at extremely low power to send an extremely slow Morse code message over an extremely large distance to extremely sensitive receivers which are extremely dependent on computers to decode. While you might be able to send a voice message across the ocean with ~100 watts of power, there are people sending messages with milliwatts! The main idea is that if you send the signals slow enough, and average the audio data (fast Fourier transformation) over a long enough time, weak signals below the noise threshold will stand out enough to be copied visually.

Without going into more detail than that, this is the kind of stuff I've been copying the last couple days. The image is a slow time-averaged waterfall-type FFT display of 10.140 MHz copied from a Mosley-pro 67 yagi mounted ~180 ft in the air connected to a Kenwood TS-940S transceiver. Red ticks represent 10 seconds. Therefore the frame above is ~10 minutes of audio. The trace on the image is from two different transmitters. The upper trace is from VA3STL's QRSS quarter-watt transmitter from Canada described here and pictured below. The lower trace is from WA5DJJ's QRSS quarter-watt transmitter in New Hampshire, described and pictured here.

I don't know why I'm drawn to QRSS so much. Perhaps it's the fact that it's a hobby which only a handful of people have ever participated in. It uses computers and software, but unlike software-defined radio they don't require complicated equipment, and a QRSS transmitter or receiver can be built from simple and cheap components.

Argo: There's a popular QRSS "grabber" software for Windows called Argo. It dumps out screenshots of itself every few minutes which is nice, but it doesn't assemble them together (which is annoying). I wrote a script to assemble Argo screen captures together as a single image. It's a script for ImageJ.

makeRectangle(13, 94, 560, 320);
run("Crop");
rename("source");
frames = nSlices();
newImage("long", "RGB White", (frames - 1) * 560, 320, 1);
for (i = 0; i < frames; i++)
{
    selectWindow("source");
    setSlice(i + 1);
    run("Select All");
    run("Cut");
    selectWindow("long");
    run("Paste");
    makeRectangle(i * 560, 0, 560, 320);
}
selectWindow("source");
close();

As far as life goes, I'm discovering that it's not the attainment of a goal that gives me pleasure; it's the pursuit of the goal. Perhaps that's why I peruse hobbies which are difficult, and further challenge myself by doing things in weird, quirky ways. I'd love to experiment more with radio, but I don't have much money to spend. Yeah, an all-band 100-watt HF/VHF/UHF rig would be nice, but I don't want to spend hundreds of dollars on that kind of equipment... Maybe when I have a "real" job and stop being a student I'll be in a better place to buy stuff like that. I built a cheap but surprisingly functional base-loaded vertical HF antenna for my apartment balcony (don't worry neighbors, it's taken inside after every use). It's mainly for receive, but I don't see any reason why it couldn't be used for QRP transmitting.

Yes, that's an antenna made from copper pipe, wire, and toilet paper rolls. I wound the wire around the base and created various tap points so it serves as a variable inductor depending on where I gator-clip the radio. Not pictured are 33' radials running inside my apartment serving as grounding. The antenna feeds into a Pixie II direct conversion receiver / QRP transmitter which dumps its output to a laptop computer. I copied some PSK-31 transmissions from Canada with this setup. It works way better than a long / random wire antenna because it dramatically boosts signal-to-noise when tuned to the proper frequency.

UPDATE: VA3STL mentioned me on his site

Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: QRSS and Life in Dental School
date: 2010-01-01 18:33:50
tags: qrss, amateur radio
---

# QRSS and Life in Dental School

__QRSS uses extremely simple radio transmitters at extremely low power to send an extremely slow Morse code message over an extremely large distance to extremely sensitive receivers which are extremely dependent on computers to decode.__ While you might be able to send a voice message across the ocean with ~100 watts of power, there are people sending messages with _milliwatts_! The main idea is that if you send the signals slow enough, and average the audio data ([fast Fourier transformation](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_Fourier_transform)) over a long enough time, weak signals below the noise threshold will stand out enough to be copied visually.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](qrss_kj4ldf_thumb.jpg)](qrss_kj4ldf.png)

</div>

__Without going into more detail than that, this is the kind of stuff I've been copying the last couple days.__ The image is a slow time-averaged waterfall-type [FFT](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_Fourier_transform) display of 10.140 MHz copied from a [Mosley-pro 67 yagi](http://www.mosley-electronics.com/newspage/pd2ba%20PRO-67-B%205-29-07.jpg) mounted ~180 ft in the air connected to a [Kenwood TS-940S transceiver](http://www.universal-radio.com/USED/UP52lrg.jpg). Red ticks represent 10 seconds. Therefore the frame above is ~10 minutes of audio. The trace on the image is from two different transmitters. The upper trace is from [VA3STL](http://www.qrz.com/callsign?callsign=VA3STL)'s QRSS quarter-watt transmitter from Canada [described here](http://va3stl.wordpress.com/2009/03/09/homebrew-qrss-beacon-working/) and pictured below. The lower trace is from [WA5DJJ](http://www.qrz.com/callsign?callsign=WA5DJJ)'s QRSS quarter-watt transmitter in New Hampshire, [described and pictured here](http://www.zianet.com/dhassall/QRSS.html).

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](qrss_transmitter_thumb.jpg)](qrss_transmitter.jpg)

</div>

__I don't know why I'm drawn to QRSS so much.__ Perhaps it's the fact that it's a hobby which only a handful of people have ever participated in. It uses computers and software, but unlike [software-defined radio](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software-defined_radio) they don't require complicated equipment, and a QRSS transmitter or receiver can be built from simple and cheap components.

<div class="text-center img-border">

![](10_01_01_00009.bmp)

</div>

__Argo: __There's a popular QRSS "grabber" software for Windows called [Argo](http://www.sdrham.com/argo/index.html). It dumps out screenshots of itself every few minutes which is nice, but it doesn't assemble them together (which is annoying). I wrote a script to assemble Argo screen captures together as a single image. It's a script for ImageJ.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](long_thumb.jpg)](long.jpg)

</div>

```c
makeRectangle(13, 94, 560, 320);
run("Crop");
rename("source");
frames = nSlices();
newImage("long", "RGB White", (frames - 1) * 560, 320, 1);
for (i = 0; i < frames; i++)
{
    selectWindow("source");
    setSlice(i + 1);
    run("Select All");
    run("Cut");
    selectWindow("long");
    run("Paste");
    makeRectangle(i * 560, 0, 560, 320);
}
selectWindow("source");
close();
```

__As far as life goes,__ I'm discovering that it's not the attainment of a goal that gives me pleasure; it's the pursuit of the goal. Perhaps that's why I peruse hobbies which are difficult, and further challenge myself by doing things in weird, quirky ways. I'd love to experiment more with radio, but I don't have much money to spend. Yeah, an all-band 100-watt HF/VHF/UHF rig would be nice, but I don't want to spend hundreds of dollars on that kind of equipment... Maybe when I have a "real" job and stop being a student I'll be in a better place to buy stuff like that. I built a cheap but surprisingly functional base-loaded vertical HF antenna for my apartment balcony (don't worry neighbors, it's taken inside after every use). It's mainly for receive, but I don't see any reason why it couldn't be used for QRP transmitting.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](ant_1_thumb.jpg)](ant_1.jpg)

</div>

__Yes, that's an antenna made from copper pipe, wire, and toilet paper rolls. __I wound the wire around the base and created various tap points so it serves as a variable inductor depending on where I gator-clip the radio. Not pictured are 33' radials running inside my apartment serving as grounding. The antenna feeds into a [Pixie II direct conversion receiver / QRP transmitter](http://www.swharden.com/blog/images/pixie2transceiver.gif) which dumps its output to a laptop computer. I copied some [PSK-31](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PSK31) transmissions from Canada with this setup. It works way better than a long / random wire antenna because it dramatically boosts signal-to-noise when tuned to the proper frequency.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](ant_2_thumb.jpg)](ant_2.jpg)

</div>

__UPDATE:__ VA3STL [mentioned me on his site](http://va3stl.wordpress.com/2010/01/01/qrss-signal-reaches-florida/)
April 30th, 2009

A Foot in the QRSS Door

I've been very busy over the past couple weeks. Last Thursday my boss approached me and asked if I could work over the weekend. He wanted to complete and submit a grant by the deadline (Monday at 5 pm). To make a long story short I worked really hard (really long days) on Friday, Saturday, Sunday, and Monday to accomplish this. Monday afternoon when it was done (at about 4 pm), after which I went home and collapsed from exhaustion. I don't know how my boss does it! He worked on it far more than I did, and over that weekend he didn't sleep much. Anyway, in exchange for my over-weekend work I got Tuesday and Wednesday off.

I knew in advance that I'd have two days off to do whatever I wanted. I prepared ahead of time by ordering a small handful (I think 4?) of ATMEL AVR type ATTiny2313 chips from Digi-Key at $2.26 per chip. They arrived in the mail on Monday. Unlike the simple PICAXE chips which can be programmed a form of BASIC cod from 2 wires of a serial port, the AVR series of chips are usually programmed from assembly-level code. Thankfully, C code can be converted to assembly (thanks to AVR-GCC) and loaded onto these chips. The result is a much faster and more powerful coding platform than the PICAXE chips can delivery. PICAXE seems useful for rapid development (especially if you already know BASIC) but I feel that I'm ready to tackle something new.

I built a straight-through parallel programmer for my ATTiny2313 chips. It was based upon the dapa configuration and connects to the appropriate pins. To be safe I recommend that you protect your parallel port and microcontrollers by installing the proper resisters (~1k?) between the devices, but I didn't do this.

I decided to dive right in to the world of digital RF transmission and should probably go to jail for it. I blatantly violated FCC regulations and simply wired my microcontroller to change the power level given to a 3.579545 MHz oscillator. The antenna is the copper wire sticking vertically out of the breadboard.

These crystals release wide bands of RF not only near the primary frequency (F), but also on the harmonic frequencies (F*n where n=1,2,3...). I was able to pick up the signal on my scanner at its 9th harmonic (32.215905 MHz). I think the harmonic output power is inversely proportional to n. Therefore the frequency I'm listening to represents only a fraction of the RF power the crystal is putting out at its primary frequency. Unfortunately the only listening device I have (currently) is the old scanner, which can only listen above 30 MHz.

Remember when I talked about the illegal part? Yeah, I detected harmonic signals being emitted way up into the high 100s of MHz. I don't think it's a big deal because it's low power and I doubt the signal is getting very far, but I'm always concerned about irritating people (Are people trying to use Morse code at one of the frequencies? Am I jamming my neighbors' TV reception?) so I don't keep it on long. Once I get some more time, I'll build the appropriate receiver circuits (I have another matched crystal) and install a low-pass filter (to eliminate harmonics) and maybe even get a more appropriate radio license (I'm still only technician). But for now, this is a proof-of-concept, and it works. Check out the output of the scanner.

Something I struggled with for half an hour was how to produce a tone with a microcontroller and the oscillator. Simply supplying power to the oscillator produces a strong RF signal, but there is no sound to it. It's just full quieting when it's on, and static noise when it's off. To produce an AM tone, I needed amplitude modulation. I activated the oscillator by supplying power from the microcontroller with one pin (to get it oscillating), and fed it extra juice in the form of timer output from another pin. The fluctuation in power to the oscillator (without power-loss) produced a very strong, loud, clear signal (horizontal lines). I wrote code to make it beep. Frequency can be adjusted by modifying the timer output properties. The code in the screenshot is very primitive, and not current (doesn't use timers to control AM frequency), but it worked. I'm sure I'll write more about it later.

Thoughts from Future Scott (August 2019, 10 years later):

What a good start! But what a bad design =P

Driving a can oscillator's power pin with two microcontroller pins is not a good idea. Also, you were SO CLOSE to getting frequency shift keying to work! Rather than turning the can oscillator on/off with the microcontroller, just leave it on continuously and send a microcontroller pin to the can oscillator's VCO pin. I'm sure I didn't know what that 4th pin does when did when I originally wrote this (and most diagrams of can oscillators online leave that pin disconnected).

Either way, I'm happy this day happened - this was the start of years of hobby radio frequency circuit design!

Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: A Foot in the QRSS Door
date: 2009-04-30 09:26:40
tags: qrss, microcontroller, amateur radio, old
---

# A Foot in the QRSS Door

__I've been very busy over the past couple weeks.__ Last Thursday my boss approached me and asked if I could work over the weekend. He wanted to complete and submit a grant by the deadline (Monday at 5 pm). To make a long story short I worked really hard (really long days) on Friday, Saturday, Sunday, and Monday to accomplish this. Monday afternoon when it was done (at about 4 pm), after which I went home and collapsed from exhaustion. I don't know how my boss does it! He worked on it far more than I did, and over that weekend he didn't sleep much. Anyway, in exchange for my over-weekend work I got Tuesday and Wednesday off.

<div class="text-center">

![](attiny2313.jpg)

</div>

__I knew in advance that I'd have two days off to do whatever I wanted.__ I prepared ahead of time by ordering a small handful (I think 4?) of [ATMEL AVR](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmel_AVR) type [ATTiny2313 chips from Digi-Key](http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail&amp;name=ATTINY2313-20PU-ND) at $2.26 per chip. They arrived in the mail on Monday. Unlike the simple [PICAXE](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PICAXE) chips which can be programmed a form of BASIC cod from 2 wires of a serial port, the AVR series of chips are usually programmed from assembly-level code. Thankfully, C code can be converted to assembly (thanks to AVR-GCC) and loaded onto these chips. The result is a much faster and more powerful coding platform than the PICAXE chips can delivery. PICAXE seems useful for rapid development (especially if you already know BASIC) but I feel that I'm ready to tackle something new.

__I built a straight-through parallel programmer__ for my ATTiny2313 chips. It was based upon the [dapa configuration](https://wikis.mit.edu/confluence/download/attachments/20512/dapa.png) and connects to the appropriate pins. To be safe I recommend that you protect your parallel port and microcontrollers by installing the proper resisters (~1k?) between the devices, but I didn't do this.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](img_1555_thumb.jpg)](img_1555.jpg)

</div>

__I decided to dive right in to the world of digital RF transmission__ and should probably go to jail for it. I blatantly violated FCC regulations and simply wired my microcontroller to change the power level given to a 3.579545 MHz oscillator. The antenna is the copper wire sticking vertically out of the breadboard.

__These crystals release wide bands of RF__ not only near the primary frequency (F), but also on the harmonic frequencies (F\*n where n=1,2,3...). I was able to pick up the signal on my scanner at its 9th harmonic (32.215905 MHz). I think the harmonic output power is inversely proportional to n. Therefore the frequency I'm listening to represents only a fraction of the RF power the crystal is putting out at its primary frequency. Unfortunately the only listening device I have (currently) is the old scanner, which can only listen above 30 MHz.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](img_1550_thumb.jpg)](img_1550.jpg)

</div>

__Remember when I talked about the illegal part?__ Yeah, I detected harmonic signals being emitted way up into the high 100s of MHz. I don't think it's a big deal because it's low power and I doubt the signal is getting very far, but I'm always concerned about irritating people (Are people trying to use Morse code at one of the frequencies? Am I jamming my neighbors' TV reception?) so I don't keep it on long. Once I get some more time, I'll build the appropriate receiver circuits (I have another matched crystal) and install a low-pass filter (to eliminate harmonics) and maybe even get a more appropriate radio license (I'm still only technician). But for now, this is a proof-of-concept, and it works. Check out the output of the scanner.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](ss_thumb.jpg)](ss.png)

</div>

__Something I struggled with for half an hour__ was how to produce a tone with a microcontroller and the oscillator. Simply supplying power to the oscillator produces a strong RF signal, but there is no sound to it. It's just full quieting when it's on, and static noise when it's off. To produce an AM tone, I needed amplitude modulation. I activated the oscillator by supplying power from the microcontroller with one pin (to get it oscillating), and fed it extra juice in the form of timer output from another pin. The fluctuation in power to the oscillator (without power-loss) produced a very strong, loud, clear signal (horizontal lines). I wrote code to make it beep. Frequency can be adjusted by modifying the timer output properties. The code in the screenshot is very primitive, and not current (doesn't use timers to control AM frequency), but it worked. I'm sure I'll write more about it later.

<blockquote class="wp-block-quote"><p><strong>Thoughts from Future Scott (August 2019, 10 years later):</strong></p><p>What a good start! But what a bad design =P</p><p>Driving a can oscillator's power pin with two microcontroller pins is not a good idea. Also, you were SO CLOSE to getting frequency shift keying to work! Rather than turning the can oscillator on/off with the microcontroller, just leave it on continuously and send a microcontroller pin to the can oscillator's VCO pin. I'm sure I didn't know what that 4th pin does when did when I originally wrote this (and most diagrams of can oscillators online leave that pin disconnected).</p><p>Either way, I'm happy this day happened - this was the start of years of hobby radio frequency circuit design!</p></blockquote>

April 15th, 2009

Scott is now Licensed! (KJ4LDF)

I've taken the plunge into the geek world by becoming a licensed amateur radio operator. My wife and I both took our technician exam last week, and this morning I discovered that our call signs have been processed. I'm KJ4LDF, she's KJ4LDG. I'm a little disappointed that my call sign has an "F" in it. On the air, "F" and "S" sound similar, so I'm more likely to have people asking me to repeat it. The phonetics are Kilo, Juliet, Four, Lima, Delta, Foxtrot. Foxtrot! How silly is that? [sighs] Either way, I'm glad I've been added to the database, and am now legally able to begin broadcasting on VHF/UHF.

Beacon stuff (like I wrote about in the last post) would best involve lower frequencies, which would mean I have to take another exam to get a higher license class.

Markdown source code last modified on January 18th, 2021
---
title: Scott is now Licensed! (KJ4LDF)
date: 2009-04-15 08:56:37
tags: amateur radio, qrss
---

# Scott is now Licensed! (KJ4LDF)

<div class="text-center img-border">

![](qrss.jpg)

</div>

__I've taken the plunge__ into the geek world by becoming a licensed amateur radio operator. My wife and I both took our technician exam last week, and this morning I discovered that our call signs have been processed. I'm KJ4LDF, she's KJ4LDG. I'm a little disappointed that my call sign has an "F" in it. On the air, "F" and "S" sound similar, so I'm more likely to have people asking me to repeat it. The phonetics are Kilo, Juliet, Four, Lima, Delta, Foxtrot. Foxtrot! How silly is that? [sighs] Either way, I'm glad I've been added to the database, and am now legally able to begin broadcasting on VHF/UHF.

<div class="text-center img-border">

[![](radiospec_thumb.jpg)](radiospec.png)

</div>

Beacon stuff (like I wrote about in the last post) would best involve lower frequencies, which would mean I have to take another exam to get a higher license class.
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