Resources for visualizing data using C# and the .NET platform
How to draw graphics for each frame and use ffmpeg to save the result as a video file

This page describes how to create video files using SkiaSharp and ffmpeg. Note that there is a similar page describing how to render video with System.Drawing, but it is windows-only. The method described here works on all operating systems including Linux and MacOS.

1. Get SkiaSharp and FFMpegCore

Create a new project:

dotnet new console

Add packages:

dotnet add package SkiaSharp
dotnet add package FFMpegCore

2. Add Using Statements

using FFMpegCore;
using FFMpegCore.Pipes;
using SkiaSharp;

3. Create a Frame Converter

This class is used to convert SKBitmap images to IVideoFrame objects that can be used by ffmpeg.

internal class SKBitmapFrame : IVideoFrame, IDisposable
    public int Width => Source.Width;
    public int Height => Source.Height;
    public string Format => "bgra";

    private readonly SKBitmap Source;

    public SKBitmapFrame(SKBitmap bmp)
        if (bmp.ColorType != SKColorType.Bgra8888)
            throw new NotImplementedException("only 'bgra' color type is supported");
        Source = bmp;

    public void Dispose() =>

    public void Serialize(Stream pipe) =>
        pipe.Write(Source.Bytes, 0, Source.Bytes.Length);

    public Task SerializeAsync(Stream pipe, CancellationToken token) =>
        pipe.WriteAsync(Source.Bytes, 0, Source.Bytes.Length, token);

4. Create Frame Rendering Logic

This IEnumerable function is used to yield individual IVideoFrame objects as ffmpeg needs them.

When a frame is requested it is rendered onto a SKBitmap and returned packaged inside an IVideoFrame.

This way frames are rendered just before they are needed, preventing memory accumulation during large rendering jobs.

IEnumerable<IVideoFrame> CreateFrames(int count, int width, int height)
    using SKFont textFont = new(SKTypeface.FromFamilyName("consolas"), size: 32);
    using SKPaint textPaint = new(textFont) { Color = SKColors.Yellow, TextAlign = SKTextAlign.Center };
    using SKPaint rectanglePaint = new() { Color = SKColors.Green, Style = SKPaintStyle.Fill };
    SKColor backgroundColor = SKColors.Navy;

    for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
        Console.WriteLine($"\rRendering frame {i + 1} of {count}");
        using SKBitmap bmp = new(width, height);
        using SKCanvas canvas = new(bmp);
        canvas.DrawRect(i, i, i * 2, i * 2, rectanglePaint);
        canvas.DrawText("SkiaSharp", bmp.Width / 2, bmp.Height * .4f, textPaint);
        canvas.DrawText($"Frame {i}", bmp.Width / 2, bmp.Height * .6f, textPaint);

        using SKBitmapFrame frame = new(bmp);
        yield return frame;

5. Render a Video File

Tying everything together, this code defines an enumerated 150-frame video and loads it into a pipe, then uses FFMpeg to encode the frames into a WEBM file (shown at the top of the page).

var frames = CreateFrames(count: 150, width: 400, height: 300);
RawVideoPipeSource videoFramesSource = new(frames) { FrameRate = 30 };
bool success = FFMpegArguments
    .OutputToFile("output.webm", overwrite: true, options => options.WithVideoCodec("libvpx-vp9"))

Additional Configuration

  • codec mpeg4 created output.mp4 that worked in media player but not my browser
  • codec libx264 created output.mp4 that worked in my browser not in media player
  • codec libvpx-vp9 created output.webm that worked everywhere
  • See the FFMpegCore GitHub page for more options